Giáo trình Mô đun: Anh văn chuyên ngành - Lê Văn Hiền

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  1. 1 BỘ LAO ĐỘNG THƯƠNG BINH VÀ XÃ HỘI TỔNG CỤC DẠY NGHỀ GIÁO TRÌNH Mơ đun:Anh văn chuyên ngành NGHỀ: ĐIỆN TỬ CƠNG NGHIỆP TRÌNH ĐỘ: CAO ĐẲNG Ban hành kèm theo Quyết định số:120/QĐ-TCDN ngày 25 tháng 02 năm 2013 của Tổng cục trưởng Tổng cục Dạy nghề Năm 2013 LỜI GIỚI THIỆU
  2. 2 Trong chương trình đào tạo ngành Điện tử công nghiệp ở các trường Cao Đẳng Nghề, Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành Điện tử công nghiệp có một vị trí đặc biệt quan trọng, trong bối cảnh hội nhập và hợp tác quốc tế thì Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành phục vụ trực tiếp cho việc học tập và nghiên cứu của sinh viên về lĩnh vực Điện tử công nghiệp. Để đáp ứng nhu cầu học tập và nghiên cứu của sinh viên tại các trường Cao đẳng nghề, Trường Cao Đẳng Nghề LILAMA 2 vinh dự được Tổng cục Dạy nghề giao nhiệm vụ tổ chức biên soạn theo quyết định số: 612/QĐ-TCDN ngày 14 tháng 11 năm 2011 . Để thực hiện biên soạn giáo trình đào tạo nghề Điện tử công nghiệp ở trình độ CĐN, TCN, Giáo trình mô đun Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành là một trong những giáo trình mô đun được biên soạn theo nội dung chương trình khung được Bộ Lao động Thương binh và Xã hội phê duyệt. Nội dung biên soạn ngắn gọn, súc tích và dễ hiểu, tích hợp giữa kiến thức và kỹ năng, đồng thời mang tính logic. Sau một thời gian dài tìm tòi, nghiên cứu và tổng hợp tài liệu, bằng tâm huyết với nghề giáo và bề dày kinh nghiệm nhiều năm trong nghề, đội ngũ giảng dạy Tiếng Anh kết hợp với giáo viên dạy chuyên ngành điện, điện tử đã tổ chức biên soạn giáo trình này. Với phương châm làm việc theo tác phong công nghiệp và luôn cập nhật tiêu chuẩn quốc tế trong tài liệu giảng dạy của nhà trường, Giáo trình thể hiện được tính chuyên nghiệp và tính quốc tế trong việc trình bày những kiến thức cũng như kỹ năng của ngành Điện tử công nghiệp nhằm phát triển vốn thuật ngữ Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành, đồng thời tăng cường kỹ năng đọc và hiểu tiếng Anh cho sinh viên. Giáo trình được thiết kế với lượng thời gian 90 giờ gồm có: Bài M20-01: Electrical Materials Bài M20-02: Install Satellite Coax cables and electrical equipment Bài M20-03: Install and check low voltage panel, medium voltage panel and control panel Bài M20-04: Install and check lighting control equipment Bài M20-05: Electronic devices Bài M20-06: Basic Electronic Equipment in Circuits Bài M20-07: Basic Electronic Equipment in Use Bài M20-08: Test and Repair Instrument Bài M20-09: Safety in Industrial Electrical Application Bài M20-10: Review and Final Test Với nội dung và kiến thức đã biên soạn trong giáo trình phù hợp với mục tiêu đào tạo anh văn chuyên ngành cho nghề Điên tử công nghiệp. Tuy nhiên, lần đầu tiên xây dựng giáo trình chắc chắn không tránh khỏi những thiếu sót, rất
  3. 3 mong bạn đọc quan tâm, đóng góp ý kiến để chỉnh sửa và hoàn thiện giáo trình này trong những lần tái bản sau. Đồng Nai, ngày 10 tháng 06 năm 2013 Tham gia biên soạn 1. Chủ biên TS. Lê Văn Hiền 2. ThS. Lê Quang Trung 3. ThS. Nguyễn Thị Thanh Tuyền
  4. 4 MƠ ĐUN ANH VĂN CHUYÊN NGÀNH ĐIỆN ĐIỆN TỬ CƠNG NGHIỆP Mã mơ đun: MĐ 20 VỊ TRÍ, TÍNH CHẤT CỦA MƠ ĐUN: Mơ đun Anh văn Chuyên ngành Điện tử cơng nghiệp là Mơ đun bổ trợ trong danh mục các mơn học, mơ đun đào tạo nghề Điện tử cơng nghiệp. Mơ đun này là giúp cho người học phát triển được kiến thức và kỹ năng cần thiết về sử dụng Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành để đọc, hiểu các tài liệu kỹ thuật trong lĩnh vực điện tử cơng nghiệp cũng như giao tiếp Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành trong mơi trường làm việc tại doanh nghiệp. MỤC TIÊU CỦA MƠ ĐUN - Đọc và hiểu được các khái niệm cơ bản trong chuyên ngành Điện- Điện từ bằng tiếng Anh - Đọc và hiểu được các thiết bị điện, khí cụ điện, linh kiện điện tử bằng tiếng anh - Hiểu được một số thiết bị, ký hiệu điện điện tử bằng tiến anh - Đọc được một số tiêu chuẩn kỹ thuật ứng dụng trong ngành điện điện tử cơng nghiệp bằng tiếng anh - Đọc và hiểu được tài liệu tiếng anh trong lĩnh vực điện và điện tử cơng nghiệp, cĩ khả năng giao tiếp và sử dụng anh văn trong lĩnh vực điện điện tử tự tin trong mơi trường làm việc của doanh nghiệp - Tự giác, tích cực, chủ động và hợp tác trong học tập NỘI DUNG MƠ ĐUN Số Thời gian Hình thức Tên các bài trong mơ đun TT Tsố LT TH KT giảng dạy 1 Electrical Materials 10 1 8 1 1.1 Vocabulary 0.5 0.5 1.2 Grammar 1.5 0.5 1 Reading Comprehension - Conducting Materials - Semiconducting 1.3 7 7 Materials - Insulating Materials - Magnetic Materials
  5. 5 - Special Materials 1.4 Test 1 1 Install Sattlite Coax 2 cables and electrical 10 1 8 1 equipment 2.1 Vocabulary 0.5 0.5 2.2 Grammar 1.5 0.5 1 Reading Comprehension - General rules for 7 2.3 installation 7 - Steps to install - Test 2.4 Test 1 1 Install and check low voltage panel, medium 3 10 1 8 1 voltage panel and control panel 3.1 Vocabulary 0.5 0.5 3.2 Grammar 1.5 0.5 1 Reading Comprehension - Install and check low voltage panel 7 7 3.3 - Install and check Medium voltage panel - Install and check Control panel 3.4 Test 1 1 Install and check control 4 equipment and 8 1 6 1 measurement Chươngs 4.1 Vocabulary 0.5 0.5 4.2 Grammar 1.5 0.5 1 Reading Comprehension - Install and check control 4.3 equipment 5 5 - Install and check measurement Chươngs 4.4 Test 1 1
  6. 6 5 Electronic devices 10 1 8 1 5.1 Vocabulary 0.5 0.5 5.2 Grammar 1.5 0.5 1 Reading Comprehension - Semiconductor diodes - Thyristors - MOSFETS 5.3 7 7 - Transistors - Resistors - Capacitors - Component values 5.4 Test 1 1 Basic Electronic 6 10 1 8 1 Equipment in Circuits 6.1 Vocabulary 0.5 0.5 6.2 Grammar 1.5 0.5 1 Reading Comprehension - Operational Amplifiers - Timers 6.3 7 7 - Transistor Amplifiers - Oscillators - Converters 6.4 Test 1 1 Basic Electronic 7 10 1 8 1 Equipment in Use 7.1 Vocabulary 0.5 0.5 7.2 Grammar 1.5 0.5 1 Reading Comprehension - Batteries 7.3 - Remote control 7 7 - Alarm system - Audio recording system 7.4 Test 1 1 Test and Repair 8 10 1 8 1 Instrument 8.1 Vocabulary 0.5 0.5 8.2 Grammar 1.5 0.5 1 Reading Comprehension 8.3 7 7 - General Safety
  7. 7 Considerations - Some electronic equipment used to test and repair - Some kinds of test - Repair of Cracks 8.4 Test 1 1 Safety in Industrial 9 10 1 9 Electrical Application 9.1 Vocabulary 0.5 0.5 9.2 Grammar 1.5 0.5 1 Reading Comprehension - Cause and effect of accident 9.3 7 7 - Safety equipment - Methods of avoiding accidents 9.4 Test 1 1 10 Review and Final Test 2 1 1 Tổng cộng: 90 10 70 11
  8. 8 Unit 1: ELECTRICAL MATERIALS Nhằm giúp sinh viên có hướng tiếp cận dễ dàng trong việc học tiếng Anh chuyên ngành Điện tử công nghiệp, trước hết giáo trình này giới thiệu cho sinh viên về các thuộc tính và đặc điểm kỹ thuật của các loại vật liệu điện bằng tiếng Anh. Qua đó, người học dễ nắm bắt được các kiến thức chuyên sâu hơn của các bài học tiếp theo đồng thời có thể tra cứu các tài liệu liên quan bằng tiếng anh. Mục tiêu của bài học: Sau khi học xong bài học này, sinh viên có kiến thức và kỹ năng về sử dụng anh ngữ: - Đọc hiểu được các thuật ngữ về vật liệu điện, điện tử bằng tiếng anh - Hiểu được các từ trong cấu tạo và nguyên lý vật liệu dẫn điện, vật liệu bán dẫn, vật liệu cách điện, vật liệu từ và các vật liệu đặc biệt khác bằng tiếng anh. - Sử dụng được thì hiện tại đơn để giao tiếp trong lĩnh vực điện bằng tiếng anh. - Tự tin giao tiếp tiếng anh chuyên ngành trong môi trường làm việc tại doanh nghiệp - Đọc hiểu tài liệu tham khảo bằng tiếng anh trong lĩnh vực điện Nội dung của bài học: I. VOCABULARY Mục tiêu: Cung cấp cho người học các từ vựng trong lĩnh vực điện để người học có thể đọc và hiểu được từ chuyên môn liên quan đến một số tài liệu trong lĩnh vực điện điện tử công nghiệp bằng tiếng anh. Resistivity (n) : Điện trở Annealing (n) : Sự tôi luyện Conducting (adj) : Dẫn điện Valence (n) : Hóa trị Category (n) : Loại Insulating (adj) : Cách điện Transmission (n) : Truyền tải Capacitor (n) : Tụ điện Distribution (n) : Phân phối Thermoplastic : Chịu nhiệt Transformer (n) : Máy biến thế Thermosetting : Phản ứng Copper (n) : Đồng nhiệt Aluminium (n) : Nhôm Elastic (adj) : Đàn hồi Coefficient (adj) : Hệ số Solvent (n) : Dung môi Variation (n) : Biến thiên Brittle (adj) : Dễ vỡ Voltage drop (n) : Điện áp rơi Repellent (adj) Không thấm Withstand (v) : Chịu đựng : nước Ductility (n) : Độ dẻo dai Molecule (n) : Phân tử Mould (v) : Đúc Elongate (v) : Giãn nở Solderability (n) : Tính dễ hàn Elasticity (n) : Độ đàn hồi
  9. 9 Corrosion (n) : Sự ăn mòn Polymerisation Sự polymer Precision (n) : Độ chính xác : hóa Rheostat (n) : Biến trở Hysteresis (adj) : Trễ điện môi Melting (adj) : Tan chảy Saturation (n) : Bão hòa Oxidation (n) : Sự ô xy hóa Magnetization (n) : Độ từ hóa Malleable (adj) : Dẻo Curve (v) : Uốn cong Tensile (adj) : Chịu bền Coercivity (n) : Độ kháng Busbar (n) : Thanh cái Adamantine (n) : Chất adaman Brass (n) : Đồng thau Ultrahard (adj) : Siêu cứng Bronze (n) : Đồng đỏ Darkwood (n) : Gỗ cứng Constantan (n) : Hợp chất nikel Alchemical (n) : Luyện đan Fuse (n) : Cầu chì Metallurgy (n) : Luyện kim Socket (n) : Ổ cắm Alchemy (n) Thuật luyện Fluorescent : Đèn huỳnh : đan tube (n) quang Bypass (v) : Đường vòng Electric bell (n) : Chuông điện Transmission Đường dây Three-core cable (n) : Dây cáp 3 lõi line (n) : truyền tải Fuse wire (n) : Dây chì Bulb (n) : Bóng đèn tròn Copper conductor : Dây dẫn đồng Safety helmet (n) : Mũ bảo hiểm High- voltage : Dây dẫn Outlet (n) : Ổ điện conductor(n): cao thế Earthed socket (n) Ổ điện có Extension cord (n) : Dây dẫn nhánh : dây tiếp đất Electric tool (n) : Dụng cụ điện Underfloor Ổ điện ẩn Thermoplastic (n) : Tính chịu nhiệt socket : dưới sàn Meter (n) : Đồng hồ đo Adapter (n) : Bộ nắn điện Electric meter (n) : Đồng hồ điện Voltage stabilizer : Máy ổn áp Cable gland (n) : Cổ cáp Cable clip (n) : Nẹp ống dây Cable lug (n) : Đầu cốt Plug (n) Phích cắm II. GRAMMAR Mục tiêu: Cung cấp cho người học cấu trúc ngữ pháp về thì hiện tại đơn để người học có thể sử dụng trong quá trình viết hoặc giao tiếp trong công việc tại nơi làm việc hoặc trong đời sống hằng ngày có liên quan. 2.1 The Simple Present Tense The simple present tense a. Structure To form the Present Simple Tense we use the verb's base form (go, work, speak, study). In 3rd person singular (he, she, it), the base form of the verb
  10. 10 takes -s/es. (Auxiliary verbs “be,” “do,” “have”, which can also be used as main verbs, are exceptions.)  Affirmative form I / You / We / They + V_infinitive He/She/It + V_(s,es) Example:  Electric current deals with charges in motion  I go to school every day.  Negative form I / You / We / They + do not /don't +V_infinitive He/She/It does not /doesn't / +V_infinitive Example:  She doesn't often go to the cinema.  I don't get up early at the weekend.  They don't speak English very well.  Interrogative form Do + I / You / We / They + V_infinitive Does + He/She/It + V_infinitive Example:  Do they speak foreign languages?  Does your sister play the piano?  Questions and short answers: Do you like spaghetti? Yes, I do. No, I don't. Does she know Bulgarian? Yes, she does. No, she doesn't. b. Use  When we talk about things that happen repeatedly or habitually with time expressions such as always, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, on Saturdays, rarely, never, every day, etc. Example:
  11. 11  This flow of charge creates an electric current  I usually sleep late on Sunday morning.  To indicate general truths, facts and scientific laws Example:  The sun rises in the east.  Water freezes at 0°C (32°F) 2.2 Exercises 1. Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses, then click the “Check” button to check your answers. a. Every Monday, Sally (drive) her kids to football practice. b. Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris. c. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always) . d. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) because everybody (talk) so loudly. e. Justin (write, currently) a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished. f. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight? Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) to a movie tonight with some friends. g. The business cards (be, normally ) printed by a company in New York. Their prices (be) inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good. h. This delicious chocolate (be) made by a small chocolaty in Zurich, Switzerland. 2. Form questions. Example: Where / they / to have / breakfast Where do they have breakfast? a) how / Linda / to go / to the park → b) Marie and Joe / to like / homework → c) why / you / to ride / your bike → . d) what / they / to eat / for breakfast → e) can / Ron / to speak / English
  12. 12 → f) Frank / to read / comics → g) where / she / to live → h) to be / Peter / from Austria → i) you / to walk / to school → j) when / his mum / to come / home → 3. Negative the sentences. Example: He works on the computer. - He does not work on the computer. a. The children know the answer. → b. He is from Spain. → c. The kite flies into the air. → . d. Kevin plays basketball. → . e. Anne and Sue carry a box. → f. Steve can make breakfast. → g. Sandy washes her hair. I run to school. → h. Mr Smith teaches French. → III. CONTENT Mục tiêu: Hình thành kiến thức và kỹ năng đọc hiểu cho người học để người học có thể đọc được một số tài liệu liên quan đến vật liệu điện bằng tiếng Anh. 3.1. Conducting Materials Conducting materials are classified as low resistivity materials and high resistivity materials. Low resistivity materials: The conducting materials having resistivity between 10-8 to 10-6 ohm-m come under this category and are used in transmission and distribution lines, transformers and motor windings such as copper, aluminium, steel,
  13. 13 Copper aluminium steel Properties: a) Low temperature coefficient: For minimum variations in voltage drop and power loss with the change in temperature, these materials should have low temperature coefficient. b) Sufficient mechanical strength: These materials must withstand the mechanical stresses developed during its use for particular applications. c) Ductility: The material to be used for conductors must be ductile so that it can be drawn and moulded into different sizes and shapes. d) Solderability: The conducting materials are required to be joined and the joint must have minimum contact resistance. These materials must have a good solderability. e) Resistance to corrosion: The material should have a high resistance to corrosion so that it should not be corroded when used in different environmental conditions. High resistivity materials: The conducting materials having resistivity between 10-6 to 10-3 ohm-m come under this category and are used for making resistance elements for heating devices, precision instruments, rheostats etc such as manganin, nichrome, mercury, platinum, carbon and tungsten, mercury manganin nichrome Properties:
  14. 14 a) Low temperature coefficient: For minimum variations in voltage drop and power loss with the change in temperature, these materials should have low temperature coefficient. b) High melting point: These materials, which are used as heating elements should have high melting point. c) Ductility: The material to be used for conductors must be ductile so that it can be drawn and moulded into different sizes and shapes. d) Oxidation resistance: The material should have a high oxidation resistance so that it should get oxidised when used in different environmental conditions. e) High mechanical strength: These materials must withstand the mechanical stresses developed during its use for particular applications. Copper: Aluminium: Properties Properties 1) It is reddish brown in colour. 1) Pure aluminium is silver white in 2) It is malleable and ductile and can colour. be cast, forged, rolled, drawn and 2) It is a ductile metal and can be put machined. to a shape by rolling, drawing and 3) It melts at 10830C. forging. 4) It easily alloys with other metals. 3) It melts at 6550 C. 5) Electrical resistivity of copper is 4) It is resistant to corrosion. 1.7x10-8 Ω-m. 5) Its tensile strength is 60MN/m2. 6) Tensile strength for copper is 210 6) It can be alloyed with other MN/m2. elements. 7) It is highly resistant to corrosion. 7) Annealing can soften it. 8) It is a non-magnetic material. 8) It has a higher thermal conductivity. Applications: Copper is used in conductor wires, coil windings of Applications: Aluminium is widely generators and transformers, cables, used as conductor for power busbars etc. Alloys of copper (like transmission and distribution. It is Brass, Bronze, Constantan, Manganin used in overhead transmission lines, etc) are very useful for different busbars, ACSR conductors etc. purposes. 3.2. Semiconducting Materials These are the materials, which possess the electrical resistivity in between that of conductors and insulators. They are used for the manufacture of diodes and transistors. Also the number of valence electrons is equal to four. There is a small forbidden energy gap of about 1eV between the conduction and the valence band. Examples: germanium, silicon, selenium, etc.
  15. 15 germanium silicon Properties: Substances like carbon, silicon, germanium whose electrical conductivity lies in between the conductors and insulators are known as semiconductors. The valence band of these substances is almost filled, but the conduction band is almost empty. The forbidden energy gap between valence and conduction band is very small (1ev). Therefore comparatively a smaller electric field is required to push the valence electrons to the conduction band. This is the reason, why such materials under ordinary conditions do not conduct current and behaves as an insulator. Even at room temperature, when some heat energy is imparted to the valence electrons, a few of them cross over to the conduction band imparting minor conductivity to the semiconductors. As the temperature is increased, more valence electrons cross over to the conduction band and the conductivity of the material increases. Thus these materials have negative temperature co- efficient of resistance. 3.3. Insulating Materials These are the materials, which do not allow the current to pass through them without any appreciable loss. They have very high electrical resistance and are also available in a large variety to cover different applications. Some of the specific insulating materials are used for the purpose of storing of an electrical energy and are called dielectric materials such as mica, ceramic, paper etc. These materials are used as a dielectric in capacitors. Also the number of valence electrons is more than four. The energy gap between valence and conduction band is very large (more than 5-6 eV). Examples: Mica, rubber, ceramics, glass, diamond etc.
  16. 16 mica ceramics glass Plastic materials can be classified into thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics. Thermoplastic materials: The properties of these plastic materials do not change considerably if they are melted and then cooled and solidify. They can be repeatedly melted or dissolved in various solvents. They are more elastic, less brittle and do not lose elasticity when subjected to prolonged heating. They are less apt to age thermally. They can be remoulded again and again in any shape after heating. Many of them possess extraordinary high insulating properties and are water repellent. They are polymers of linear structure, i.e. their molecules are elongated and are thread like. This, type of structure is fusible, soluble, highly plastic, capable of forming thin flexible threads and films. Examples are Polytetra Flouroethylene (P.T.F.E. or Teflon), Polyvinyl Chloride (P.V.C.). Thermosetting Plastic Materials: They undergo great changes when subjected to high temperatures for quite sometimes. They are said to be baked and no longer can melt or be dissolved. They are less elastic, more brittle and lose their elasticity when subjected to prolonged heating. So they cannot be remoulded in different shapes once they are set and hardened. They are used, when an insulation is to withstand high temperatures without melting or losing its shape and mechanical strength. Thermosetting plastic substances are space- polymers and the molecules branch off in various directions during polymerisation. Examples of the natural insulating materials are cotton, rubber, wood, mica.
  17. 17 cotton Rubber wood 3.4. Magnetic Materials Soft magnetic materials: They have small enclosed area of hysteresis loop, high permeability, high saturation value, low eddy current losses which are achieved by using laminated cores, less residual magnetism. Soft magnetic materials retain their magnetism as long as they are energised by an external magnetic field; Example: Alpha iron, super permalloy (Ni-Fe-Mo), silicon ferrite. Soft magnetic materials are used for the construction of cores for electrical machines, transformers, electromagnets reactors and cores of audio frequency couplings and matching transformers in telecommunication. Hard Magnetic materials: They have a gradually rising magnetization curve with large hysteresis loop area and hence large energy losses. They have high value of retentivity and high value of coercivity and low permeability. To saturate the hard magnetic materials, a high magnetizing force is required. Hard magnetic materials have the property of retaining their magnetism even after the magnetising field is removed. Example: Alnico (Al-Ni-Co), Cobalt DE04 steel and retaining the same for a long time. Due to this property they are used in the manufacture of permanent magnets. 3.5. Special Materials
  18. 18 Each of the special materials described below has a definite game effect. Some creatures have damage reduction based on their creature type or core concept. Some are resistant to all but a special type of damage, such as that dealt by evil-aligned weapons or bludgeoning weapons. Others are vulnerable to weapons of a particular material. Characters may choose to carry several different types of weapons, depending upon the campaign and types of creatures they most commonly encounter. Adamantine: This ultrahard metal adds to the quality of a weapon or suit of armor. IV. EXERCISE Mục tiêu: Kiểm tra kết quả đạt được của người học về sự hiểu biết các từ vựng chuyên môn cũng như ngữ pháp, kiến thức và kỹ năng đọc hiểu đã được học để hoàn thành các bài tập ứng dụng cũng như áp dụng vào trong môi trường làm thực tế sau khi tốt nghiệp. 1. Complete the sentences using the words below: conducting ductilty high (2x) transmission different transformers joint a) The conducting materials are used in and distribution lines, and motor windings. b) The materials should have low coefficient. c) The conducting can be drawn and moulded into sizes and shapes thanks to its d) The of the conducting materials must have contact resistance. e) The conducting materials should have a resistance to corrosion. 2. Answer the following questions a) What are the conducting materials used for? b) Why should the high resistivity materials have low temperature coefficient?
  19. 19 c) What are the properties of the copper? d) What are the applications of the copper? e) How much degree does the aluminium melt? 3. Decide True or False a) The semiconducting materials are used to make diodes and transistors. b) Under ordinary conditions, the semiconducting materials do not conduct current and behaves as an insulator. c) The insulating materials have very high electrical resistance. d) The properties of thermoplastic materials do not change considerably if they are melted and then cooled and solidify. e) Soft magnetic materials are used for the construction of cores for electrical machines, transformers. 4. Listen and write the missing words: The hard (1) . materials have a gradually rising magnetization curve with large hysteresis loop area and hence large energy (2) They have high value of (3) and high value of coercivity and low (4) . To saturate the hard magnetic materials, a high magnetizing (5) is required. Hard magnetic materials have the property of retaining their (6) even after the magnetising field is(7) . Example: Alnico (Al- Ni-Co), Cobalt DE04 steel and retaining the same for a (8) . time. Due to this property (9) are used in the manufacture of permanent (10) 5. Match the ideas 1) Adamantine a) as hard as normal wood but very light 2) Darkwood b) lighter than iron but just as hard. 3) Dragonhide c) adds to the quality of a weapon or suit of armor 4) Mithral d) has 10 hit points per inch of thickness and hardness 5)Conducting 10 materials e) possess the electrical resistivity in between that of conductors and insulators 6) Semiconductors f) have small enclosed area of hysteresis loop, high
  20. 20 permeability, high saturation value, low eddy current losses 7) Insulators g) are classified as low resistivity materials and high resistivity materials. 8) Magnetic materials h) do not allow the current to pass through them without any appreciable loss V. COVERSATION Mục tiêu: Hình thành kỹ năng giao tiếp cho người học để người học có tự tin giao tiếp trong môi trường làm việc Mark: Hi, John! John: Hi, Mark. How are you? Mark: I’m fine. Thank you. And you? John: I’m not bad. My boss usually asks me to buy some electrical materials for the project. Mark: Oh, so lucky you. You earn some money from that, don’t you? John: I don’t think so. I go to look everywhere for the materials but I can’t find out all the materials. Mark: Do you need any help? I will buy insulating materials from my sister’s shop next to my house for you. Don’t worry about it so much. John: Thanks a lot. See you tomorrow. Mark: See you.
  21. 21 Unit 2: INSTALL SATELLITE COAX CABLES AND ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT Nhằm đáp ứng yêu cầu sử dụng anh ngữ trong lĩnh vực điện, bài học này giúp cho người học có kiến thức và kỹ năng về anh ngữ để đọc và hiểu được các bước lắp đặt và đi dây cáp, kiểm tra và vận hành thử các thiết bị điện đồng thời cung cấp cho người học vốn thuật ngữ tiếng Anh chuyên ngành để người học có thể sử dụng trong môi trường làm việc tại doanh nghiệp nước ngoài và đọc các tài liệu tham khảo chuyên ngành điện bằng tiếng Anh. Mục tiêu của bài học: Sau khi học xong bài học này, sinh viên có khả năng sử dụng kiến thức và kỹ năng anh ngữ: - Đọc hiểu được các từ trong phương pháp lắp đặt thiết bị điện, cụ thể là cáp đồng trục và quy trình cơ bản lắp đặt bằng tiếng anh - Hiểu các từ vựng và phát âm chính xác các thuật ngữ chuyên ngành về các khí cụ điện dùng trong lắp đặt và quy trình lắp đặt cáp bằng tiếng anh - Ứng dụng thì hiện tại tiếp diễn để giao tiếp trong thực tế - Tự tin giao tiếp trong môi trường doanh nghiệp Nội dung của bài học: I. VOCABULARY Mục tiêu: Cung cấp cho người học các từ vựng bằng tiếng anh trong lĩnh vực lắp đặt thiết điện, cáp điện để người học có thể đọc và hiểu được từ chuyên môn liên quan đến một số tài liệu trong lĩnh vực điện điện tử công nghiệp bằng tiếng anh. Rule (n) : Quy tắc Clamp (n) : Cái kìm Installation (n) : Cách lắp đặt Route (v) : Định vị Regulation (n) : Quy định Staple (n) : Đinh móc U Recognize (v) : Nhận biết Rooftop (adj) : Trên mái Body (n) : Cơ quan Closet (n) : Buồng, kho Constraint (n) : Giới hạn Affix (v) : Gắn vào Procedure (n) : Quy trình Off air : Mặt đất Conformity (n) : Sự tuân thủ Mount (v) : Thiết lập Comply (v) : Tuân theo Snug bolt (n) : Tai bulong Coax (n) : Cáp đồng trục Finger tight : Vặn tay Tuner (n) : Bộ phận dò sóng Satellite (n) : Vệ tinh High definition (n) : Độ phân giải cao Diplexer (n) : Bộ phối hợp Antenna (n) : Ăng ten Alternativel (a) : Tương tự Receiver (n) : Máy thu Wrench (n) : Cờ lê
  22. 22 DTV (n) : Digital TV Voltmeter (n) : Vôn kế Ground block (n) : Ròng rọc đáy Probe (n) : Đầu dò Permissible (adj) : Có thể Shielding (n) : Lớp chắn Screw (n) : Đinh vít Stud (n) : Mũ đinh, chốt Bus bar (n) : Thanh cái Fuse (v) : Cầu chì Cable tray (n) : Máng cáp Switch on/off (v) : Công tắc Support (n): Giá đỡ Mở/ đóng Substation (n) : Trạm điện Turn on/off (v) : Mở/ đóng Transformer (n) : Máy biến thế Transformer (n) : Máy biến thế Overload (n) : Quá tải Transformation : Sự biến đổi Circuit (n) : Mạch điện of electricity (n) điện năng Screwdriver (n) : Cái tua vít Alternating : Xoay chiều Bolt (n) : Bu lông Current (n) : Dòng điện Nut (n) : Đai ốc High voltage (n) Cao áp Coil (n) : Cuộn dây Low voltage (n) : Hạ áp Put the plug in(v) : Cắm phích vào Backward (adv) : Ngược lại Shock (v) : Giật điện Nowadays (adv) : Ngày nay to use; to employ (v) : Sử dụng by; due to ; Bởi vì, do Electric energy (n) : Điện năng because of ; out of as; since; II. GRAMMAR Mục tiêu: Cung cấp cho người học cấu trúc ngữ pháp về thì hiện tại tiếp diễn để người học có thể sử dụng trong quá trình viết hoặc giao tiếp trong công việc tại nơi làm việc hoặc trong đồi sống hằng ngày có liên quan. 2.1 The Present Continuous Tense The Present Continuous Tense a. Structure The present continuous describes an action that takes place in the present and is still going on in the present. * Declarative Sentences Subject Auxiliary verb Verb + ing + + e.g. I/A dog etc. am/is / are e.g. working/going/making Example:  I am reading a book.  They are swimming in the sea. * Negative Sentences Subject + Auxiliary verb + not + Verb + ing
  23. 23 e.g. I/A dog e.g. am/is/ are + not etc. working/going/making Examples  He is not joking  We aren't waiting for my uncle *Questions Auxiliary verb Subject Verb + ing + + Am / Is / Are e.g. I/A dog e.g. working/going/making Examples:  Is she eating my cake now?  Are they having the party on Friday or Saturday? b. Use  We most often use the Present Continuous when we talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking (now, at the moment): Examples:  Pamela is sleeping in the bedroom.  The telephone is ringing!  Present Continuous is also used to express current trends: Examples:  Fuel prices are rising constantly because of strong demand.  On-line shopping is growing rapidly nowdays.  Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to describe a planned action in the near future: Examples:  I'm leaving for Vienna tomorrow morning.  We are having lunch at 12.30 o'clock 2.2 Exercises 1. Put the correct verbs 1. It .(to rain) right now. 2. I (to play)football on Saturdays. 3. They (to play)football every Tuesday. 4. She (to learn) English at school (2 hours a week). 5. My girl friend (to cook)in the kitchen now. 6. Maggy (to cook) for her grandmother on Sundays. 7. Billy (to love)Mary. 8. Billy and I (to like)Chinese food.
  24. 24 9. Billy's father .(to jog)in the park today. 10. Nicholas (to read)a fantastic book, keep silent ! 11. Erik and Beth .(to want) to go outside. 12. He .(to play)on his computer this afternoon. 13. We (to eat) chicken wings at the moment: he is very hungry. 14. What .(you /do) ?I'm sleeping. 2. Write the correct sentences a. Earn/work/hard/ money/they/to. → b. The/to /actor/become a/I / professional /train → c. Pass/ study/to/ hard /exam/ the/Luke → d. Look/they/their/for/in/now/mother/the/hospital → . e. a/she/find/job/good? → f. My/i/ sister/on /the/phone/my/talk/father → g. Time/ a/to/spend/they/lot/learn/of/English → . h. Write/I /to/letter/my/parents → i. Me/my/continually /talk/boss/to → j. Live/brother/at/city/work/and/hue → . III. CONTENT Mục tiêu: Hình thành kiến thức và kỹ đọc hiểu cho người học để người học có thể đọc được một số tài liệu liên quan đến lắp đặt cáp đồng trục bằng tiếng Anh.
  25. 25 A. General rules for installation In most countries, electrical installations shall comply with more than one set of regulations, issued by National Authorities or by recognized private bodies. It is essential to take into account these local constraints before starting the design. In so far as control procedures are respected, quality and safety will be assured only if: The initial checking of conformity of the electrical installation with the standard and regulation has been achieved. The electrical equipment comply with standards The periodic checking of the installation recommended by the equipment manufacturer is respected. B. Equipment used to install: Dish Mounting Multi-Satellite Dish LNB Arm/Antenna Back Hardware Reflector Assembly
  26. 26 LNB Mounting Triple-head, Multi-Satellite Hardware LNB with built-in Multi- Switch for four Independent Outputs EZALIGN™ Mast Grounding Screw 7/16” Nut Driver Adjustable Wrench Screwdriver (Phillips) Magnetic Compass Electric Drill and Bit C. Steps to install  Select a quality RG6 (coax) cable for installation between the dish and each tuner.  Since most Direct TV (DTV) DVRs and TiVOs have dual tuners, consider running two cables instead of just one. In the case of the DTV High Definition DVR or DTV High Definition TiVO, consider three cables if you wish to connect an “off air” antenna to receive local channels that are not available from DTV. If DVRs are not planned, installing one cable will supply a simple DTV receiver.
  27. 27 Sat C, 110° with Converted Transponders # 8, #10, #12 Sat A, 101° Sat B, 119° with withTranspond Transponders ers # 1 to # 32 # 22 to # 32 No trees, leaves, buildings can be in the line-of-sight between antenna and satellites.  Install a ground block in a convenient location anywhere between the dish and prior to entering the home. It is permissible to locate the ground block inside the home, but it should be as close to the point of entry as possible. If unable to purchase a ground block to accept all inputs and outputs, it will be required to add additional ground blocks as needed to accommodate all the connections. Cable Grounding Block To Receiver Water Drip Loop To Antenna Dual grounding block, one receiver hook up shown  Install a #10 copper wire between the house ground point (ground rod, electric meter, etc.) and the grounding terminal screw of the new ground block. These two
  28. 28 points must be connected together. Use a clamp designed for the purpose to connect the #10 wire to the house’s ground point. Do not under any circumstances disconnect or loosen existing ground connections to install the new #10 wire. Leave enough ground wire to “thread” through each ground block(s) ground terminal. Route the cable and secure with staples to the mounting surface. Securely tighten the ground terminal screw to the ground wire.  Run coax cables from each of the dish's output terminals into one side of the ground block.  Run a cable from any rooftop UHF/VHF/FM antenna (if desired) to the same side of the ground block as the dish coax.  Run the same number of cables that were run into the ground block, between the ground block and a central location. A utility closet, a point near the telephone distribution block or electrical panel area is ideal. Label the coax cables “dish” or other meaningful manner. Be sure to label the coax from a roof top antenna if extended from the ground block.  Run cables from each tuner to the central location. Affix labels to each of the cables - if two cables are connected to a single set top box, such as the case for a TiVO or DVR in a living room, label the cables “LR1” and the other “LR2” or some other meaningful term.  Select a multiswitch by determining how many inputs and outputs are needed. The number of inputs equals the number of LNBs on the dish plus one. A dual LNB dish would require a three input multiswitch. The extra input is to mix in an “off air” antenna or CATV signal. The number of outputs of the multiswitch equals the number of tuners (not the number of receivers or set top boxes) in your system. A system of three set top boxes consisting of two DTV receivers and a DTV DVR or TiVO with two tuners would require a four output multiswitch. Of course, if you add another receiver later, you'll need a multiswitch that has additional outputs. Try to buy a multiswitch with enough extra outputs to allow your system to “grow”. Cascadable multiswitches can be installed “down line” from other multiswitches, but must be identified for that use. A “3X4” Multiswitch. It has two LNB (dish) inputs, a single ANT (antenna or cable) input and four RXn (receiver) outputs. Three inputs and four outputs - hence 3X4.
  29. 29  Multiswitches become more expensive as the number of inputs and outputs increase. DTV will install as many as needed free of charge when they add or change equipment such as receivers or antennas. It’s best to let DTV do this, but there is no reason why you can't if the cost is not an issue.  Mount the multiswitch(es) and connect the dish coax cables to the dish input connector, and the antenna or Cable TV coax to the antenna input connector. Connect the coax cables from the receivers to the the multiswitch output connectors. Snug the connectors to “finger tight” for now.  At the receiver end, connect coax cables(s) to each tuner input(s). The satellite cables connect to the satellite inputs - it does not matter which one. If you ran only one satellite cable, connect it to satellite input 1. If this is a location that will need an off air antenna input as well, instead of connecting a cable directly into the tuner, connect it to a “diplexer” input instead. The diplexer will have a diagram indicating satellite and UHF/VHF connections. The diplexer “satellite out” connects to the DTV receiver tuner, and the UHF/VHF can connect to the “antenna” or “CATV” input of the DTV set top box OR even an FM Stereo receiver. Alternate Grounding Point Option #1 Grounding Screw Point Grounding Grounding Wire from Wire from Antenna Cable Grounding Block Cold water Use grounding wires #10 copper or #8 aluminum pipe only
  30. 30 Grounding Wire from Antenna Option #2 Grounding Wire from Cable Grounding Block Cold water pipe only  Check picture quality at each location. Change channels to test both tuners for TiVOs and DVRs. Alternatively, use the receiver's set up pages to view signal strengths of each satellite and tuner. Check connections and hardware until satisfied.  Securely tighten the coax connectors along each cable whereever they appear with a wrench, starting at the TV, receiver, multiswitch and ending at the ground block or dish. Do not over-tighten. C. Test the voltage of the cable Disconnect the coaxial cable from the TV or cable box and position it for easy access. Set the voltmeter to read AC (alternating current) voltage. Touch one probe of the voltmeter to the center wire. At the same time, touch the other probe to the shielding, which will be the outside area that screws into the coaxial stud. Read the display on the multimeter to determine the voltage.
  31. 31 IV. EXERCISE Mục tiêu: Kiểm tra kết quả đạt được của người học về sự hiểu biết các từ vựng chuyên môn cũng như ngữ pháp, kiến thức và kỹ năng đọc hiểu đã được học để hoàn thành các bài tập ứng dụng cũng như áp dụng vào trong môi trường làm thực tế sau khi tốt nghiệp. 1. Complete the sentences using the words below: periodic checking cable comply tuner equipment fourteen a. You have to with the standards and regulations of electrical installation. b. You have to choose electric which complies with standards. c. You have to respect the . of the installation by the equipment manufacturer. d. There are steps to install satellite coax cables and electric equipment. e. The first step is to select a quality coaxial for installation between the dish and each . 2. Answer the following questions: a. Why do we have to run two cables instead of just one? b. What do you have to connect an “offair” antenna for DTV? c. What do you must do in the fourth step? d. What do you have to consider if you want to a multiswtich? e. What will you do at last step? 3. Decide True or False a. Run coax cables from each of the dish's output terminals into one side of the ground block after run a cable from any rooftop UHF/VHF/FM antenna to the same side of the ground block as the dish coax.
  32. 32 b. The function of the extra input is to mix in an “off air” antenna or CATV signal. c. The less number of inputs and outputs, the cheaper multiswitches will be. d. Connect the dish coax cables to the dish output connector. e. Use the receiver’s set up pages to view signal strengths of each satellite and tuner. 4. Listen and Check 1. Disconnect the coaxial . from the TV or cable box and position it for easy access. 2. Set the to read AC (alternating current) voltage. 3. Touch one . of the voltmeter to the center wire. At the same time, touch the other probe to the ., which will be the outside area that screws into the coaxial 4. Read the display on the to determine the voltage. 5. Match the ideas 1. If you ran only one satellite cable, a. you'll need a multiswitch that has 2. If the installation location need an additional outputs. off air antenna input, b. connect it to satellite input 1. 3. If you add another receiver later, c. instead of connecting a cable 4. If the number of outputs of the directly into the tuner, connect it to a multiswitch is 6, “diplexer” input. 5. If unable to purchase a ground block d. you will have to add additional to accept all inputs and outputs, ground blocks as needed to accommodate all the connections. e. the number of tuners in your system is 6. V. COVERSATION Mục tiêu: Hình thành kỹ năng giao tiếp cho người học để người học có tự tin giao tiếp trong môi trường làm việc. Mimi: Hi, John! John: Hi, Mimi! How are you? Mimi: I’m fine. Thanks. And you? John: Fine. Thank you. How about your exam last Saturday? Mimi: Oh, it’s not really good. Are you installing the coax cables? John: Yes, I am. Mimi: How many steps are there? John: I think there are fourteen steps to install the coax cables for your TV. Mimi: Oh, it’s too much. How can you remember that? Which step are you installing in?
  33. 33 John: It’s the twelfth step. I am finishing it three minutes later. Mimi: Really? It’s fantastic. Maybe I must ask you to install my cables in the future. John: Of course. Because You are my best girlfriend in my life. Mimi: Thanks for the good words. Oh, my mother is calling me. I must go home now. Bye, honey. John: Byebye my darling.
  34. 34 Module 3: INSTALL AND CHECK LOW VOLTAGE PANEL, MEDIUM VOLTAGE PANEL AND CONTROL PANEL Trong môi trường quốc tế hóa ngày nay, tiếng Anh giữ có vai trò đặc biệt quan trọng, đặc biệt là tiếng Anh chuyên ngành kỹ thuật nói chung, tiếng anh cho ngành điện tử công nghiệp nói riêng. Nội dung bài học này cung cấp cho người học về kiến thức anh ngữ trong lĩnh vực lắp đặt tủ bảng điện hạ thế, trung thế, và tủ bảng điều khiển. Do đó, người học có thể sử dụng các thuật ngữ anh văn để đọc hiểu và nghiên cứu các tài liệu trong lĩnh vực điện có liên quan. Mục tiêu của bài học: Sau khi học xong bài học này, sinh viên có kiến thức và kỹ năng về sử dụng anh ngữ : - Đọc hiểu được các nguyên tắc, các bước lắp đặt bảng hạ thế, trung thế và bảng điều khiển - Phát âm chính xác các thuật ngữ chuyên ngành sử dụng trong lắp đặt bảng Điện. - Nắm vững và áp dụng đúng sáu cấu trúc cơ bản trong tiếng Anh. - Tự tin hơn để giao tiếp trong môi trường doanh nghiệp - Đọc hiểu tài liệu tham khảo bằng tiếng anh trong lĩnh vực điện điện tử Nội dung của bài học: I. VOCABULARY Mục tiêu: Cung cấp cho người học các từ vựng bằng tiếng anh trong lĩnh vực lắp đặt các tủ bảng hạ thế, trung thế và tủ bảng điều khiển để người học có thể đọc và hiểu được từ chuyên môn liên quan đến một số tài liệu trong lĩnh vực điện điện tử công nghiệp bằng tiếng Anh. Module (n) : Khối Snap (v) : Kẹp Data (n) : Dữ liệu Extension (n) : Độ giản Flexibility (n) : Tính linh hoạt Bracket (n) : Giá đỡ Assurance (n) : Sự đảm bảo Snip (v) : Cắt/kéo cắt tôn Low voltage (n) : Điện áp thấp Crimping (adj) : Gấp mép Outlet (n) : Nguồn ra Duplex (n) : Ghép đôi Broadband (n) : Dải băng rộng Plate (n) : Tấm kim loại Excess (n) : Độ dôi Gently (adv) : Nhẹ nhàng Breaker (n) : Bộ ngắt Adjust (v) : Điều chỉnh Knockouts (n) : Bộ tách Detection (n) : Dò tìm Bushings (n) : Bạc lót Vessel (n) Bể chứa Color-coded (n) : Có mã màu Feeder (n) : Cấp đầu vào Slot (n) : Khe Bus bar (n) : Thanh cái Punch (n) : Cái đột/đục Compartment (n) : Buồng/bể Trim (v) : Xén, tỉa Keypad (n) : Bàn phím
  35. 35 Diagonal (adj) : Chéo, góc Security (n) An ninh Cutter (n) : Dao cắt/tiện Monitoring (adj) : Kiểm soát Surge protector (n) : Bộ chống xung Sensor (n) : Cảm biến Cap (n) : Bệ/nắp Dials (n) : Đĩa số Debris (n) : Mảnh vỡ Breach (v) : Nứt/ rạn Receptacle (n) : Ổ cắm điện Roam (v) : Chuyển vùng Fuse (n) : Cầu chì Button (n) : Nút nhấn Switch (n) : Công tắc Alarm (n) : Đèn báo Circuit breaker (n) : CB Cable lug (n) : Đầu cáp Medium voltage : Dây điện Terminal (n) : Đấu nối cáp wire (n) trung thế Diagram (n) : Sơ đồ đấu nối Low voltage wire : Dây điện hạ thế Principle (n) : Nguyên lý Medium voltage : Trung thế Junction box (n) : Hộp điện Line (n) : Đường dây Earthing (n) : Sự tiếp đất Low voltage line : Đường dây hạ thế Cable tray (n) : Máng cáp Medium voltage : Điện trung thế Neutral cable (n) : Cáp trung tính motor (n) : Động cơ Test (v) : Kiểm tra Low voltage : Hạ thế Inspection (n) : Nghiệm thu motor (n) : Động cơ điện Commissioning (n) : Vận hành thử Capacitor (n) : Tủ điện Greater than : Lớn hơn Winding (n) : Cuộn dây Less than : Nhỏ hơn Except (for) (prep) : Ngoại trừ Thumbnail-sized : Cỡ nhỏ Iron-rich core : Lõi dây thép Coupling : Khớp nối Primary (a) : Sơ cấp Transformer : Máy biến Secondary (a) : Thứ cấp Interconnect (v) : Kết nối Primary winding : Cuộn dây sơ cấp Power grid (n) : Lưới điện Secondary winding : Cuộn dây thứ cấp Eliminate (v) : Khử Vary (v) : Thay đổi Electronic circuit : Mạch điện tử Magnetic field (n) : Từ trường Magnitude (n) : Đại lượng Induce (v) : Gây ra Basically (adv) : Cơ bản Electromotive force : Lực điện động Alertnate = change : Thay đổi (EMF) : Sức điện động Power plant (n) : Nhà máy điện Mutual induction : Hệ số hỗ cảm Substation (n) : Trạm biến áp Load (n) : Phụ tải Electric meter (n) : Đồng hồ đo điện Electric current (n) : Dòng điện Electrical appliance : Thiết bị điện Primary circuit (n) : Mạch sơ cấp Direct current : Dòng điện 1chiều In proportion to : Tỷ lệ với Stepped up (v) : Tăng lên turn (n) : Vòng dây Stepped down (v) : Giảm xuống Alternating current : Dòng điện xoay Stator (n) : Phần tĩnh
  36. 36 chiều Stator winding (n) : Dây quấn tĩnh Assembly (n) : Bộ phận lắp đặt Consist (of) (v) : Gồm Cường độ Laminated core (n) : Lõi thép lá Cartridge : Hộp Winding (n) : Dây quấn assembly (n) Lắp đặt II. GRAMMAR Mục tiêu: Cung cấp cho người học cấu trúc ngữ pháp về các mẫu câu đơn tiếng Anh để người học có thể sử dụng trong quá trình viết hoặc giao tiếp trong công việc tại nơi làm việc hoặc trong đồi sống hằng ngày có liên quan. 2.1 The six sentence patterns 1. Subject + Verb I swim. Joe swims. They swam. 2. Subject + Verb + Object I drive a car. Joe plays the guitar. They ate dinner. 3. Subject + Verb + Complement I am busy. Joe became a doctor. They look sick. 4. Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object I gave her a gift. She teaches us English. 5. Subject + Verb + Object + Complement I left the door open. We elected him president. They named her Jane. 6. Subject + Verb+ Adverb She dances beautifully. 2.2 Exercise a. Determine the sentence pattern for each sentence given below 1. The child behaved horribly in the store. 2. On his last trip to Russia in the spring, Hilda finally felt comfortable. 3. In another life I must have been a dancer. 4. Upon his return, the people elected Jasper king of the entire country. 5. My brother showed me the stream behind the wooded area. 6. You are very quiet today. 7. The personality test found Jenkins unsuitable for the position. 8. After much deliberation, Millie bought the biggest car on the lot. 9. Later, Smithers became the most important person in his life. 10.The poor sailor was at sea for a year. 11. Under most circumstances, we would be happy with your work. 12. The professor considered the student a genius at mathematics. 13. Ulcers give people pain. 14, He waited in the rain for an hour.
  37. 37 15. During my teen years, I grew tall. b. Make six sentences with the six sentence pattern above 1. Subject + Verb 2. Subject + Verb + Object 3. Subject + Verb + Complement 4. Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object 5. Subject + Verb + Object + Complement 6. Subject + Verb+ Adver III. CONTENT Mục tiêu: Hình thành kiến thức và kỹ đọc hiểu cho người học để người học có thể đọc được một số tài liệu liên quan đến lắp đặt và kiểm tra bảng điện áp bằng tiếng Anh. Passage 1: Install and check low voltage panel Installing a media network panel with modules for phone, data, and video lines provides flexibility and the assurance that you have reliable connections.
  38. 38 Step 1 Cut openings and install a low-voltage box at each outlet location. Between two studs, cut an opening for the network panel. Run Category 5e cable for phone and data lines and coaxial cable for broadband or satellite lines. This is the hardest and most time-consuming part of the job. Step 2 Label each end of the cables as you pull them. Leave 12-18 inches of excess cable at each opening. Run a 14/2 electrical cable from the breaker panel to the network box opening. Remove knockouts and fit the box with bushings to protect the cables. Feed the cables into the box and fasten them to the studs. Step 3 Purchase Category 5e connectors, selecting colors to indicate use (blue for data lines and white for phone lines for example). Strip about 21/2 inches of cable jacket and straighten the wires. Using the A color key on the eight-conductor connector, push the wires into their color-coded slots. Press them into place using the punch tool provided. Step 4 Check to make sure the wires are positioned correctly, and then trim any excess wire with a diagonal cutter. Push the connector cap into place. Fit the coaxial cable with type-F connectors.
  39. 39 Step 5 Remove knockouts and fasten the surge protector and GFCI power module into the network box. Strip the 14/2 cable and connect the module following the manufacturer's instructions. Fasten the module into place using screws provided. Leave caps in place to guard against debris falling into the receptacles. Step 6 Snap a telephone distribution panel into place. It routes incoming telephone lines. Attach a voice and data module (or more if you need them each module serves six wall outlets). Wire each household extension line to this module. Connect patch cords between these modules and the appropriate plug-in. Step 7 For each incoming line strip about 21/2 inches of cable jacket from the Category 5e cable. Following the manufacturer's instructions straighten and fan the wires and place them into the color-coded brackets adjacent to the appropriate module. Press them into the brackets with a punch tool and snip off the excess. Step 8 Snap the Internet gateway into place. Connect the incoming modem line to the WAN (wide-area network) port with Category 5e-rated patch cords. Connect computer lines to the gateway. Configure the gateway using the software provided on a CD packaged with the Internet gateway.
  40. 40 Step 9 Install a new breaker to power the dedicated 15-amp lines. Test for power. Remove a protective cap from one of the GFCI receptacles and plug in the Internet gateway transformer. Step 10 Attach type-F coaxial connectors to each incoming coaxial line, using coaxial stripping and crimping tools. Attach the incoming service cable to the CATV/ANT connection. Attach the other lines according to their labels. Plug the module transformer into the power module. Step 11 Snap the connectors into the duplex plate. (You can choose from plates that have from two to six openings.) Test each line. Gently feed the cables into the wall and attach the plate to the outlet box.
  41. 41 Testing the system: At the network panel find the cable being tested and touch the tester to it. If the line is correct, the tester emits a high-pitched sound. If there is no sound, check other lines until you find the connected line. Adjust the connection at the panel to correct any mistakes. Passage 2: : Install and check medium voltage panel Fig. 2: Cable switch panel CS Fig. 3: Fuse switch panel FS (shown with main bus in the middle) (shown with main bus on top) 1. Sockets for capacitive voltage detection system 14. Cable compartment cover/ door 2. Manual operation for the 15. Gas-insulated vessel for switching mechanism of the load-break device /disconnecting function 16. Bushing-type insulator for feeder 3. Indicator “Fuse intact / Fuse 17. Cable connection blown” 18. Cable termination (not in scope of 4. Switch position indicator for load- supply) break and for grounding function 19. Cable connection compartment “CLOSED-OPEN-GROUNDED” 20. Three-position switch 5. Manual operation for the 21. Grounding bus bar mechanism of the grounding 22. Spring-operated mechanism for three- function position switch 6. Sockets for capacitive voltage 23. Grounding connection (for location detection system see dimension drawings) 7. Insulating cap on bus bar (for > 24. Option: Local-remote switch for the
  42. 42 15 kV) motor operating mechanism of the three- 8. Bus bar position switch 9. Bushing-type insulator for bus bar 25. Option: Momentary-contact rotary 10. “Ready-for-service” indicator control switch “CLOSED – OPEN” for for switching device motor operating mechanism for three- 11. Interlocking lever of cable position switch compartment cover (with three- 26. Option: HV HRC (current limiting) position switch) fuse 12. Pressure relief device for 27. Post insulator switching device 28. Low voltage compartment 13. Locking device for three- position switch Three VFD modules will be installed at Pump Stations 1, 3, 4, and 9. All three will contain VFDs, while two will also contain switchgear. A platform adjacent to the module will hold a cooling system for the liquid-cooled VFD, a transformer to step down the incoming power from 13,800 volts to 6,600 volts, and a station transformer to provide 480-volt power to the module. The VFD controls the frequency of the power in order to vary the speed of the pump motors. The photo below shows a 3-D rendering of the three VFD modules planned for Pump Station 4.
  43. 43 The photo above shows part of the ABB switchgear with the front panels open. The switchgear consists of a series of sections. The frst on the left houses the control wiring for the switchgear. The section at right contains the circuit breaker and the computer (multifunction protective relay) that controls that breaker. Each VFD module will have six or seven breakers. The computer can sense the full range of current and can be programmed from a laptop computer. In addition, a communications Switchgear module will interface with the PLC.
  44. 44 The actual switching mechanism is contained in the back of the unit so that operators are never exposed to the medium-voltage components. Copper tubes (or bus) that supply the power to the circuit breakers are shown at left. The photos above show the breaker mechanism and how an operator can lock the breaker. The variable frequency drives (VFD) are manufactured by Allen- Bradley, and each consists of six sections. The section above at left houses the power cable terminations in the back and the controls in the front, while the next section contains the power electronics that condition the power. The other sections house capacitors, the DC link, and the pumps for the liquid cooling system. A single VFD module produces the frequency- controlled power needed to run a single mainline pump motor.
  45. 45 The photo at top left shows the power cable terminations, which are behind a locked panel. The power electronics are seen in the photo above, while some of the capacitors can be seen below left. Passage 3: Install and check control panel on Home Security System 1. Survey your home and determine how many windows and doors you want to be “switched”, or integrated into the home security system. 2. Determine possible locations for the control panel and keypads. You might find it convenient to place a keypad close to the front door. You might also want a keypad close to the bedrooms. The control panel commands the system, and the keypads allow you to program the system and turn it, or its components, on and off.
  46. 46 3. Determine how far away windows and doors are from the control panel so that you know how far wires will be routed if you choose a wired alarm system or how far a wireless system needs to communicate with sensors. Keep in mind that it is difficult to install a hard-wired security system unless your house is still under construction. 4. Decide whether you want a monitored security system that will be monitored 24 hours a day. The central monitoring station ‘watches’ your home for a monthly fee. A less expensive alternative is a basic sensor system with a dialer accessory that connects the system to your phone lines and dials preselected numbers if the house’s security is breached. 5. Consider your lifestyle. Does anyone in the family often get up in the middle of the night for a snack? Do you have a large pet that roams the house at night? Such circumstances will influence the type of motion sensor you select and how it is installed. It may also call for you or members of your family to take trips to the keypad to prevent false alarms. IV. EXERCISE Mục tiêu: Kiểm tra kết quả đạt được của người học về sự hiểu biết các từ vựng chuyên môn cũng như ngữ pháp, kiến thức và kỹ năng đọc hiểu đã được học để hoàn thành các bài tập ứng dụng cũng như áp dụng vào trong môi trường làm thực tế sau khi tốt nghiệp. 1. Complete the sentences knockouts screws cutter first bushings whether voice a. The step is cut openings and install a low- voltage box at each outlet location. b. One of the actions at the second step is to remove and fit the box with . to protect the cables. c. You have to check .the wires are positioned correctly before trimming any excess wire with a diagonal . d. At the fifth step, you use to fasten the module into place.
  47. 47 e. After snapping a telephone distribution panel into place, you attach a and data module. 2. Answer the following questions a. How many steps to install a low- voltage panel in your home? b. Which step do you think is the most important? c. When do you snap the Internet gateway into place? d. What do you do at the ninth step? e. Why do you need to test the system after finishing installation? 3. Decide True or False a. Nunber 1 is used to refer to sockets for capacitive voltage detection system. b. Number 4 is used to refer to manual operation for the mechanism of the load- break /disconnecting function. c. Number 2 is used to refer to Indicator “Fuse intact / Fuse blown” d. Number 16 is used to refer to switch position indicator for load-break and for grounding function "CLOSED-OPEN-GROUNDED" e. Manual operation for the mechanism of the grounding function is Number 5. 4. Listen and Check windows keypad sensors wires security program control panel construction how Survey your home and determine how many and doors you want to be “switched”, or integrated into the home system. Determine possible locations for the and keypads. You might find it convenient to place a close to the front door. You might also want a keypad close to the bedrooms. The control panel commands the system, and the keypads allow you to the system and turn it, or its components, on and off. Determine far away windows and doors are from the control panel so that you know how far will be routed if you choose a wired alarm system or how far a wireless system needs to communicate
  48. 48 with Keep in mind that it is difficult to install a hard-wired security system unless your house is still under 5. Match the ideas 1. If there is no sound, a. the tester emits a high-pitched sound. 2. If the line is correct, b. to each incoming coaxial line, using coaxial stripping and crimping tools. 3. Attach type-F coaxial connectors c. check other lines until you find the 4. Remove a protective cap connected line. d. between these modules and the 5. Connect patch cords appropriate plug-in. e. from one of the GFCI receptacles and plug in the Internet gateway transformer. V. CONVERSATION Mục tiêu: Hình thành kỹ năng giao tiếp cho người học để người học có tự tin giao tiếp trong môi trường làm việc. Nina: Hi, Henry Henry: Hi, Nina. How’s everything? Nina: Well. Thanks. How about you? Henry: Fine, Thanks. Nina: Do you know how to install a low voltage panel? Henry: Yes, I do. I usually do it for my home. Nina: How many steps are there, Henry? I think it’s really good for my test next week. Henry: Really? Do you need any more help, Nina? Nina: Do you mind if I meet you tonight to talk about it? I want you to tell me clearly all the steps and I’ll take notes. Henry: No, not at all. What time? Nina: How about 6.30 at Seven Club? Henry: That’s all right. See you tonight. Nina: See you.
  49. 49 Module 4: INSTALL AND CHECK LIGHTING CONTROL EQUIPMENT Trong lĩnh vực lắp đặt điện, thiết bị chiếu sáng và điều khiển chiếu sáng chiếm vị trí thường được ứng dụng. Bài học này giúp cho người học có kiến thức và kỹ năng về anh ngữ để đọc hiểu được cách lắp đặt thiết bị điều khiển chiếu sáng đồng thời cung cấp cho người học vốn thuật ngữ tiếng Anh chuyên ngành để người học có thể sử dụng trong môi trường làm việc với doanh nghiệp nước ngoài và đọc các tài liệu tham khảo chuyên ngành điện bằng tiếng anh. Mục tiêu của bài học: Sau khi học xong bài học này, sinh viên có khả năng sử dụng kiến thức và kỹ năng anh ngữ: - Đọc hiểu được các bước lắp đặt thiết bị chiếu sáng và kiểm tra thiết bị điều khiển chiếu sáng - Hiểu các từ vựng và phát âm chính xác các thuật ngữ chuyên ngành về thiết bị chiếu sáng và điều khiển chiếu sáng - Sử dụng dạng bị động đúng trong ngữ cảnh. - Tự tin giao tiếp trong môi trường doanh nghiệp Nội dung của bài học: I. VOCABULARY Mục tiêu: Cung cấp cho người học các từ vựng bằng tiếng anh trong lĩnh vực lắp đặt các thiết bị chiếu sáng và điều khiển chiếu sáng để người học có thể đọc và hiểu được từ chuyên môn liên quan đến một số tài liệu trong lĩnh vực điện điện tử công nghiệp bằng tiếng Anh. Remote control (n) : Điều khiển từ xa Sodium (n) : Nat ri Hardware control (n) : Điều khiển Vary (v) : Khác nhau phần cứng Efficiency (n) : Hiệu suất Switch (n) : Công tắc Closure (n) : Sai số kép Lighting (n) : Chiếu sáng Homeowner (n) : Chủ nhà Communication (n) : Truyền thông Execute (v) : Thực hiện Keypad (n) : Bàn phím Controller (n) : Bộ điều khiển Microprocessor (n) : Bộ vi xử lý Capability (n) : Khả năng Interface (v) : Giao diện Contact (n) : Tiếp xúc Command (n) : Điều khiển Closet (n) : Tủ Automated (adj) : Tự động Handle (on/off) (v) : Vận hành Integrate (v) : Tích hợp Invariably (adv) : Không đổi Automatically (adv) : Tự động Dimmable (adj) : Mờ As long as (conj) : Miễn sao Fixture (n) : Bộ gá lắp Incandescent (n) : Nóng sáng Identically (adv) : Giống nhau
  50. 50 Fluorescent (n) : Huỳnh quang Touchscreen (n) : Màn hình High-intensity (n) : Cường độ cao Retrofitable (adj) : Xúc giác Discharge (n) : Phóng điện Internal (adj) : Bên trong Low-pressure (n) : Áp suất thấp Relay (n) : Rơ le Generator (n) : Máy phát điện Active (adj) : Tích cực Distribution : Sự phân phối Effect (n) : Tác động Communication (n) : Truyền thông Least (adj) : Nhỏ nhất Deal (n) : Gỗ thông Contact (n) : Tiếp xúc Equipment (n) : Thiết bị Test ( v) : Kiểm tra Mechanical (n) : Cơ khí Triable ( adj) : Thử Control (n) : Điều khiển Testable ( adj) : Kiểm tra được Structure (n) : Kết cấu Insulate (v ) : Cách điện Transportation : Hệ thống Insulating tape (n) : Băng cách điện systems truyền tải Closing ( n) : Đóng Application (n) : Sự ứng dụng Cut (v) : Cắt Conception (n) : Khái niệm Measure( n ) : Đo lường Manually operated : Vận hành bằng Joint ( n) : Mối nối mechanism tay Capacity (n) : Điện dung Actuating mechanism : Khởi động Check ( n ) : Sự kiểm tra Form (n) : Hình dạng, mẫu Property ( adj) : Đặc tính Built-in (v) : Đưa vào Magnetization ( n ) : Từ hóa Tighten a screw (v) : Siết chặt đinh ốc Polarity ( n ) : Cực tính Operation (n) : Vận hành Regulation ( n) : Quy tắc Insulation resistance : Điện trở cách Adjust ( v) : Điều chỉnh điện Adjustable( adj ) : Điều chỉnh Voltage (n) : Điện áp Series ( n) : Dãy Lighting installation : Lắp đặt hệ thống Put ( v) Đặt để chiếu sáng Preparation ( n ) : Sự chuẩn bị Earth wire (n) : Dây nối đất Prepare ( v) : Chuẩn bị Protective conductor : Dây dẫn bảo vệ Equipment ( n) : Thiết bị Live (L) (adj) : Có điện Material ( adj) : Vật liệu Neutral (adj) : Trung tính Research ( n) : Nghiên cứu Twin cable (n) : Cáp xoắn đôi Consecutive (adj) : Nối tiếp Fittings (n) : Đồ phụ tùng Insulation tape (n) : Băng cách điện Terminal (n) : Đầu cực Junction box (n) : Hộp nối Circuit diagram (n) : Sơ đồ mạch điện Plywood (n) : Ván ép, gỗ dán Loop (n) : Mạch Lubrication (n) : Sự bôi trơn Gear (n) : Bánh răng Specification (n) : Đặc tính Pulley (n) : Cái ròng rọc Antifriction (n) : Giảm ma sát
  51. 51 Center-to-center : Khoảng cách tả Crane (n) : Cần trục distance tâm đản tâm Hoist (n) : Tời Adjacent = near : Gần, kế bên Rack (n) : Giá đỡ Adequate (adj) : Đảy đả Roller (n) : Con lăn II. GRAMMAR Mục tiêu: Cung cấp cho người học cấu trúc ngữ pháp về thì hiện tại đơn trong tiếng Anh để người học có thể sử dụng trong quá trình viết hoặc giao tiếp trong công việc tại nơi làm việc hoặc trong đồi sống hằng ngày có liên quan. 2.1 Passive voice of Simple Present Tense *Affirmative S + be + V (past participle) + O Eg: It is called an insulated plier Voltmeters are made in a wide range of styles Electric equipment is used to install eletricity in businesses and homes with safety. * Negative S + be + not + V (past participle) + O Eg: It isn’t called an insulated plier Voltmeters aren’t made in a wide range of styles * Yes / No question Be + S + V (past participle) + O? Yes, S+be No, S + be not Eg: - Is it called an Amperemeter? Yes, it is / No, it isn’t. - Is Electric equipment used to install eletricity in businesses and homes with safety? Yes, it is / No, it isn’t . 2.2 Exercise Rewrite the sentences in passive voice. 1. He opens the door. → 2. We set the table. → 3. She pays a lot of money. → 4. I draw a picture. → 5. They wear blue shoes. →
  52. 52 6. They don't help you. → 7. He doesn't open the book. → 8. You do not write the letter,→ 9. Does your mum pick you up? → 10. Does the police officer catch the thief? → III. CONTENT Mục tiêu: Hình thành kiến thức và kỹ đọc hiểu cho người học để người học có thể đọc được một số tài liệu liên quan đến lắp đặt thiết bị chiếu sáng và điều khiển chiếu sáng bằng tiếng Anh. The central control design method uses remote or hardwires control switches to control all your lighting needs in the house. Data communication wiring from keypad is routed back to microprocessor to allow both type of user interfaces to communicate control commands. Automated lighting control can also be integrated into the home system to control lighting on and off automatically. When an individual enters a specific room in the home, the lighting serving the room will immediately be turned on and the light to continue to be on as long as you are in the room. Light Types There are four basic types of lighting: incandescent, fluorescent, high- intensity discharge, and low-pressure sodium. Incandescent lighting is the most common type of lighting used in homes. Fluorescent lighting is used primarily in commercial indoor lighting systems, while high-intensity discharge lighting is used only for outdoor lighting applications. Low-pressure sodium lighting is used where color rendering is not important, such as highway and security lighting. These lighting types vary widely in their construction, efficiency, color characteristics, and lamp life. . Switch closure - the homeowner presses a button on a keypad or switch . Time - scenes can be programmed to execute at a time of day . Sunrise/sunset - controllers can use an outside light level sensor or, if they have enough programming capability, can keep a table of local sunrise/sunset times for any date. . Contact closure - any contact closure such as a magnetic door sensor or other security sensor can be used to execute a scene. A magnetic sensor placed on a closet door, for example, can be used to control the light in a closet.
  53. 53 Typical central control lighting system design. The controller handles on/off/dim functions of all attached branch lighting circuits based on user input from keypads, switches, and remote controls. Distributed Control System Distributed lighting control systems invariably use PLC (Power Line Carrier) technology such as X10 to control light loads. There are a wide range of PLC controllers and modules available to handle almost any lighting (and appliance) load in the home. For more details on PLC signaling technology and X10 modules. Modules and controllers make up most of the system components.
  54. 54 Typical distributed control lighting system design. The system uses PLC technology to perform on/off/dim functions in X10 light switches and outlets. Control can be from anywhere in the electrical system wiring. Switchable outlets can replace traditional wall outlets to control plug-in lights. Dimmable and switchable only plug-in modules can be used in existing wall outlets to control lamps or other existing light fixtures with a cord. Several different types of controllers are available. Programmable controllers can be used to configure scenes based on events such as the time of day. Keypad-like wall switches can control several individual X10 devices. Zones consisting of several fixtures can be established by combining switching modules into a group by assigning them the same house and unit code. Modules with the same house/unit code will operate identically. Scenes can be programmed into several wall mount touchscreens or using a PC interfaced to the power line and running lighting automation software. Several wall switches are capable of “learning” scene setting and recalling the scene upon receiving a specific X10 code. IR and RF remote control devices are also available to control individual modules or groups of modules assigned the same code. Since PLC distributed control lighting system components rely on the power line as a network, they are subject to potential problems with power line communications and some skill (and network conditioning hardware) may be required to achieve a reliable system, but they have several advantages over central control systems. They are retrofitable. Most X10 lighting modules are either plugged into an existing outlet, or replace traditional light switches. Other components can be connected to existing electrical wiring. They use traditional electrical wiring. They do not require any special house wiring techniques or additional control signal wiring. Extra electrical wiring may be needed in a location where a controller is mounted, typically at eye level on a wall surface. Interface with Home Automation Systems Both types of lighting systems can be interfaced to a whole house automation system or to a PC for more elaborate control. Central control
  55. 55 systems typically have an EIA-232 (often referred to by its older designation of RS-232) serial computer interface. The software used to perform the interface is proprietary to each manufacture. The distributed control PLC system can be easily controlled by any device with an X10 PLC interface. There are several PC to X10 power line interface devices available with PC software included. Central Control Panel The central controller is usually contained in a large panel mounted near the main electrical load center of the home and contains a microcontroller for all system operation. The microcontroller is programmed during installation to assign keypad switches to lights and/or lighting scenes, create lighting zones and scenes, and assign contact closure inputs to lights or scenes. It also contains the remote controlled lighting zone switches, both on/off only and dimmable to handle the hardwired lighting circuits. It is wired similarly to an electrical panel since electrical wiring from lighting circuits is brought to the lighting panel and connected to an internal switch circuit.
  56. 56 Components of a central control system all connect to the central control panel through electrical wiring or dedicated control wiring. *Lighting installation The Basic Lighting Circuit Diagram Circuit protective conductor omitted for clarity - the bare earth wire in “twin & earth” although not shown in the circuit diagram, each point should be provided with a means of earthing- - from live, fuse, then to a switch, and then to the light and then to neutral. On a full installation, it is necessary to have more than one light on a circuit, and bearing in mind that the common wiring method is to use a cable with 2 conductors, the best way to wire a lighting circuit is as follows :- L live • N neutral • Ls Live, switched. The twin cable to the switch is shown with both cores red. When stripping back the sheathing, care must be taken to ensure that the sheathing for the cable outside the enclosure is continuous into the enclosure. Many light fittings (mối nối) do not have a neat arrangement of connector blocks (hộp nối). When changing a “proper” light fitting for a more elaborate type, you must use a proper junction box to accommodate the supply & switch cables, and run a separate twin cable through the hole in the ceiling into the new light fitting. Installing Additional (1-way) Light Points If the supply is being taken from the consumer unit, then it will be from a fused way. Adding a new light fitting - controlled by same switch
  57. 57 In the wiring diagram above, the light only needs a switched live & a neutral. To connect another light, simply double up to these terminals. The new light will be ON and OFF just as the one you connected to. If the light has to be controlled by another switch, then check the next section. Adding a new light fitting with its own switch Another light controlled by its own switch will be wired as shown in the basic wiring diagram above to get a supply for the new light: connect into the L & N terminal in an existing light & run a cable to the new light fitting position and wire it up as shown in the basic wiring diagram break into the lighting supply cable - be sure to identify the correct cable add a fused (5A) connection unit to a suitable source. 2-way Lighting Circuit Diagram 2-way means two ways to switch the light on or off - think about a landing light. That can be switched on or off at both the switch on the landing and at the switch at the bottom of the stairs. In this diagram, the light is OFF, power goes to the 1st switch and along the upper strapper (thanh dẫn trên) to the 2nd switch. If the 1st switch is operated, power will get to the 2nd switch along the lower strapper (thanh dẫn dưới) If either of the switches is operated, the light will be ON, and then if either switch is operated the light will be OFF. 3-way Lighting Circuit Diagram Reconsider 2 way lighting - see how throwing either of the two switches in any state causes the strappers to swap ON & OFF - and this affect the light. So if the strappers were crossed at any point between the two switches, the light would change so . If a changeover switch is introduced into the circuit, it would
  58. 58 give the desired effect, independently of the other 2 switches intermediate switch changeover crossover. Lighting circuit Every electrician has his or own way of wiring lighting circuits but basically there are only three different ways, two of these are almost identical. Method 1: This is what I consider the hard way, It is difficult because you do not have lots of room inside the switch box but has the advantage of having a neutral wire inside which could be useful for wall lights etc! Here is a diagram of the connections at the switch with the earth removed. As you can see from the above diagram the 3 Neutral wires are all connected together in a insulated terminal, the live in and out are connected
  59. 59 together at the non switched side of the circuit and the switched live goes to the Lamp! Method 2: Loop in wiring system The above diagram shows how the power is fed from the consumer unit to the first light and then to each consecutive light on the circuit hence it is named the circuit wire. The earth wires are not shown for clarity. Try and follow the path of the electricity.
  60. 60 Method 3: Junction box wiring system
  61. 61 There’s just one Neutral, one switched Live and an earth . A cable is now joined to Neutral (terminal 3) and switched live (terminal 1) and earth. This cable is passed through the hole in the ceiling and wired directly to the light fitting, remember to put red tape around the black insulation as this is the switched live! IV. EXERCISE Mục tiêu: Kiểm tra kết quả đạt được của người học về sự hiểu biết các từ vựng chuyên môn cũng như ngữ pháp, kiến thức và kỹ năng đọc hiểu đã được học để hoàn thành các bài tập ứng dụng cũng như áp dụng vào trong môi trường làm thực tế sau khi tốt nghiệp. 1. Complete the sentences closet Low-pressure sensor fluorescent four system Automated switches central a. The . control design method uses remote or hardwire control .to control all your lighting needs in the house b. lighting control can also be integrated into the home .to control lighting on and off automatically. c. There are basic types of lighting: incandescent, , high- intensity discharge, and low-pressure sodium. d. sodium lighting is used where color rendering is not important, such as highway and security lighting. e. A magnetic placed on a closet door can be used to control the light in a . 2. Answer the following questions a. How many basic types of lighting are there ? b. Why is data communication wiring from keypad routed back to microprocessor? c. What is the function of PLC technology? d. What can dimmable and switchable only plug-in modules be used in existing wall outlets for? e. Why do you need to programme the microcontroller during installation?
  62. 62 3. Decide True or False a. PLC distributed control lighting system components are retrofitable. b. The controller handles on/off/dim functions of all attached branch lighting circuits based on user input from keypads, switches, and remote controls. c. A magnetic sensor can keep a table of local sunrise/sunset times for any date. d. Outside light level sensor can be used to control the light in a closet. e. Low-pressure sodium lighting is used where color rendering is not important, such as highway and security lighting. 4. Listen and Check keypad panel contact closure internal remote microcontroller zones circuits microcontroller The central controller is usually contained in a large mounted near the main electrical load center of the home and contains a for all system operation. The is programmed during installation to assign switches to lights and/or lighting scenes, create lighting and scenes, and assign . inputs to lights or scenes. It also contains the controlled lighting zone switches, both on/off only and dimmable to handle the hardwired lighting It is wired similarly to an electrical panel since electrical wiring from lighting circuits is brought to the lighting panel and connected to an . switch circuit. 5. Match the ideas 1. Scenes can be programmed into a. will operate identically 2. Modules with the same house/unit code b. several wall mount 3. Programmable controllers can be used touchscreens. to c. configure scenes based on 4. Fluorescent lighting is used primarily events such as the time of day 5. high-intensity discharge lighting d. is used only for outdoor lighting applications e. in commercial indoor lighting systems V. CONVERSATION Mục tiêu: Hình thành kỹ năng giao tiếp cho người học để người học có tự tin giao tiếp trong môi trường làm việc. Hana: Hi, Henry
  63. 63 Henry: Hi, Hana. How’s everything? Hana: Well. Thanks. How about you? Henry: Fine, Thanks. Hana: Do you know how many basic types of lighting? Henry: Yes, I do. There are four basic types of lighting. Hana: Can you tell me more clearly about that? Henry: Of course. They are incandescent, fluorescent, high-intensity discharge, and low-pressure sodium. Hana: Do you mind explaining the diagram for me? Henry: No, not at all. Let’s meet at Grow café at 7 pm tonight because I have a lot of work to do now? Hana: That’s a good idea. See you at 7 pm at Grow coffee shop. Henry: OK. See you.
  64. 64 Unit 5: ELECTRONIC DEVICES Trong thời kỳ hội nhập kinh tế quốc tế, các nhà đầu tư nước ngoài không ngừng mở rộng các cơ sở kinh doanh ở Việt Nam nói chung và các thành phố nói riêng. Vì vậy, nhu cầu sử dụng giao tiếp bằng ngoại ngữ cực kỳ quan trọng. Nhằm đáp ứng nhu cầu đó, bài học này giúp cho người học có kiến thức và kỹ năng về anh ngữ để đọc hiểu được một số các linh kiện điện tử, trình bày ngắn gọn và đầy đủ một số đặc điểm và thuộc tính của các linh kiện như đi-ốt bán dẫn, điện dung, MOSFET, tran zi to, điện trở, và tụ điện. Mục tiêu của bài học: Sau khi học xong bài học này, người học có khả năng: - Đọc hiểu được các linh kiện điện tử bằng tiếng Anh như đi-ốt bán dẫn, điện dung, MOSFET, tran zi to, điện trở, tụ điện, các giá trị linh kiện của chúng. - Đọc hiểu các từ vựng và phát âm chính xác các thuật ngữ chuyên ngành về linh kiện điện tử. - Hiểu và biết cách sử dụng hiện tại phân từ trong tiếng Anh. - Tự tin giao tiếp trong môi trường doanh nghiệp Nội dung của bài học: I. VOCABULARY Mục tiêu: Cung cấp cho người học các từ vựng bằng tiếng Anh trong lĩnh vực linh kiện điện tử để người học có thể đọc và hiểu được từ chuyên môn liên quan đến một số tài liệu trong lĩnh vực điện điện tử công nghiệp bằng tiếng Anh. Diode (n) : Đi ốt MOSFETs (n) : Tranzito trường Valve (n) : Van silic oxit kim Exist (v) : Tồn tại loại Schematic (adj) : Thuộc mạch FETs (n) : Tranzito hiệu Term (n) : Thuật ngữ ứng trường Customarily (adv) : Thường thường Animation (n) : Hoạt ảnh Rectifier (n) : Bộ chỉnh lưu Load (n) : Phụ tải Forward-biased (a) : Phân cực thuận Parameter (n) : Thông số Reverse-biased (a) : Phân cực ngược voltage (n) : Điện áp Operation (n) : Sự hoạt động Transistor (n) : Tranzito Analogous (adj) : Tương tự External (adj) : Bên ngoài Hydraulic (adj) : Thủy lực Amplify (v) : Khuếch đại Fluid (n) : Chất lỏng Ubiquitous (adj) : Thường gặp Essentially (adv) : Cần thiết Pave (n) : Vỉa hè Polarity (n) : Phân cực Resistor (n) : Điện trở Measurements (n) : Đo lường Potential (n) : Điện thế Junction (n) : Mối nối Distinct (adj) : Phân biệt
  65. 65 Withstand (v) : Chịu đựng Sufficient (adj) : Đầy đủ, ổn định Gate (n) : Cổng Vice versa (adv) : Ngược lại Anode (n) : Cực dương Capacitor ( n) : Tụ điện Cathode (n) : Cực âm Insulator (n) : Cách điện Thyristor (n) : Thyristo Electrostatic (adj) : Tĩnh điện Leakage (adj) : Rò Resonant (adj) : Cộng hưởng Depletion (n) : Sự thiếu hụt Leakage Current : Dòng điện rò Signal (n) : Tín hiệu Inductance (n) : Điện cảm Pulse (n) : Xung Unidirectional : Một chiều Speed (n) : Tốc độ Vacuum tube (n) : Đèn chân không Terminal (n) : Đầu cuối Constant (n) : Hằng số II. GRAMMAR Mục tiêu: Cung cấp cho người học cấu trúc ngữ pháp về hiện tại phân từ trong tiếng Anh để người học có thể sử dụng trong quá trình viết hoặc giao tiếp trong công việc tại nơi làm việc hoặc trong đồi sống hằng ngày có liên quan. 2.1 The Present Participle 1) Formation The present participle is formed by adding the ending “-ing” to the infinitive (dropping any silent “e” at the end of the infinitive): to sing > singing to take > taking to bake > baking to be > being to have > having 2) Use A. The present participle may often function as an adjective: That's an interesting book. That tree is a weeping willow. B. The present participle can be used as a noun denoting an activity (this form is also called a gerund): Swimming is good exercise. Traveling is fun. C. The present participle can indicate an action that is taking place, although it cannot stand by itself as a verb. In these cases it generally modifies a noun (or pronoun), an adverb, or a past participle: Thinking myself lost, I gave up all hope. Washing clothes is not my idea of a job. Looking ahead is important.
  66. 66 D. The present participle may be used with “while” or “by” to express an idea of simultaneity (“while”) or causality (“by”) : He finished dinner while watching television. By using a dictionary he could find all the words. While speaking on the phone, she doodled. By calling the police you saved my life! E. The present participle of the auxiliary “have” may be used with the past participle to describe a past condition resulting in another action: Having spent all his money, he returned home. Having told herself that she would be too late, she accelerated. 2.2 Exercise Rewrite the sentences replacing the italic part with a present participle. 1. She was talking to her friend and forgot everything around her. → 2. Since we watch the news every day we know what's going on in the world. → 3. They are vegetarians and don't eat meat. → 4. The dog wagged its tail and bit the postman. → 5. While she was tidying up her room she found some old photos. → 6. He was a good boy and helped his mother in the kitchen. → 7. As they didn't have enough money they spent their holidays at home last year. → 8. The man was sitting in the cafe. He was reading a paper.? → 9. Since I didn't feel well I didn't go to the cinema. → 10. She walked home and met an old friend. → III. CONTENT Mục tiêu: Hình thành kiến thức và kỹ đọc hiểu cho người học để người học có thể đọc được một số tài liệu liên quan đến sơ đồ mạch điện tử bằng tiếng Anh. What are Electronic Circuits? An electronic circuit is made up of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes which has different
  67. 67 roles in an electronic circuit. An electronic circuit can be divided into an analog circuit, a digital circuit or a mixed-signal circuit. AND GATE Capacitor Diode Type-light Ammeter Amplifier Antenna Circuit Breaker Diode-Schottky Battery Diode Exclusive OR Diode Type 2 Earth Ground Rectifier Integrated Circuit Resistors Transistor NPN Relay Transistor PNP Solar Cell Voltmeter Rheostat Transformer Wattmeter Symbol Component name Meaning Wire Symbols Electrical Wire Conductor of electrical current
  68. 68 Connected Wires Connected crossing Not connected Wires Wires are not connected Switch Symbols and Relay Symbols SPST Toggle Switch Disconnects current when open SPDT Toggle Switch Selects between two connections Pushbutton Switch (N.O) Momentary switch - normally open Pushbutton Switch (N.C) Momentary switch - normally closed DIP switch is used for onboard DIP Switch configuration SPST Relay Relay open / close connection by an electromagnet SPDT Relay Close connection by jumper insertion Jumper on pins. Solder Bridge Solder to close connection
  69. 69 Ground Symbols Used for zero potential reference and Earth Ground electrical shock protection. Chassis Ground Connected to the chassis of the circuit Digital / Common Ground Resistor Symbols Resistor (IEEE) Resistor reduces the current flow. Resistor (IEC) Potentiometer (IEEE) Adjustable resistor - has 3 terminals. Potentiometer (IEC) Variable Resistor / Rheostat(IEEE) Adjustable resistor - has 2 terminals. Variable Resistor / Rheostat (IEC) Capacitor Symbols Capacitor is used to store electric Capacitor charge. It acts as short circuit with AC and open circuit with DC.
  70. 70 Capacitor Polarized Capacitor Electrolytic capacitor Polarized Capacitor Electrolytic capacitor Variable Capacitor Adjustable capacitance Inductor / Coil Symbols Coil / solenoid that generates Inductor magnetic field Iron Core Inductor Includes iron Variable Inductor Power Supply Symbols Voltage Source Generates constant voltage Current Source Generates constant current. AC Voltage Source AC voltage source Electrical voltage is generated by Generator mechanical rotation of the generator
  71. 71 Battery Cell Generates constant voltage Battery Generates constant voltage Generates voltage as a function of Controlled Voltage Source voltage or current of other circuit element. Generates current as a function of Controlled Current Source voltage or current of other circuit element. Meter Symbols Measures voltage. Has very high Voltmeter resistance. Connected in parallel. Measures electric current. Has near Ammeter zero resistance. Connected serially. Ohmmeter Measures resistance Wattmeter Measures electric power Lamp / Light Bulb Symbols Lamp / light bulb Generates light when current flows Lamp / light bulb through Lamp / light bulb
  72. 72 Diode / LED Symbols Diode allows current flow in one Diode direction only (left to right). Allows current flow in one direction, but also can flow in the reverse Zener Diode direction when above breakdown voltage Schottky diode is a diode with low Schottky Diode voltage drop Varactor / Varicap Diode Variable capacitance diode Tunnel Diode LED emits light when current flows Light Emitting Diode (LED) through Photodiode allows current flow when Photodiode exposed to light Transistor Symbols Allows current flow when high NPN Bipolar Transistor potential at base (middle) Allows current flow when low PNP Bipolar Transistor potential at base (middle) Made from 2 bipolar transistors. Has Darlington Transistor total gain of the product of each gain. JFET-N Transistor N-channel field effect transistor
  73. 73 JFET-P Transistor P-channel field effect transistor NMOS Transistor N-channel MOSFET transistor PMOS Transistor P-channel MOSFET transistor Misc. Symbols Motor Electric motor Change AC voltage from high to low Transformer or low to high. Electric bell Rings when activated Buzzer Produce buzzing sound Fuse The fuse disconnects when current above threshold. Used to protect circuit from high currents. Fuse Bus Contains several wires. Usually for Bus data / address. Bus Optocoupler isolates onnection to Optocoupler / Opto-isolator other board
  74. 74 Converts electrical signal to sound Loudspeaker waves Converts sound waves to electrical Microphone signal Operational Amplifier Amplify input signal Operates with hysteresis to reduce Schmitt Trigger noise. Analog-to-digital Converts analog signal to digital converter(ADC) numbers Digital-to-Analog converter Converts digital numbers to analog (DAC) signal Used to generate precise frequency Crystal Oscillator clock signal Antenna Symbols Antenna / aerial Transmits & receives radio waves Antenna / aerial Dipole Antenna Two wires simple antenna Logic Gates Symbols NOT Gate (Inverter) Outputs 1 when input is 0
  75. 75 AND Gate Outputs 1 when both inputs are 1. Outputs 0 when both inputs are 1. NAND Gate (NOT + AND) OR Gate Outputs 1 when any input is 1. Outputs 0 when any input is 1. (NOT NOR Gate + OR) Outputs 1 when inputs are different. XOR Gate (Exclusive OR) D Flip-Flop Stores one bit of data Multiplexer / Mux 2 to 1 Connects the output to selected input line. Multiplexer / Mux 4 to 1 Demultiplexer / Demux 1 to Connects selected output to the input 4 line. 1. Semiconductor diode
  76. 76 A diode is an electrical component acting as a one-way valve for current. The most common kind of diode in modern circuit design is the semiconductor diode, although other diode technologies exist. Semiconductor diodes are symbolized in schematic diagrams such as Figure below. The term “diode” is customarily reserved for small signal devices, I ≤ 1 A. The term rectifier is used for power devices, I > 1 A. → Semiconductor diode schematic symbol: Arrows indicate the direction of electron current flow. When voltage is applied across a diode in such a way that the diode allows current, the diode is said to be forward-biased. When voltage is applied across a diode in such a way that the diode prohibits current, the diode is said to be reverse-biased. Diode operation: (a) Current flow is permitted; the diode is forward biased. (b) Current flow is prohibited; the diode is reverse biased. Diode behavior is analogous to the behavior of a hydraulic device called a check valve. A check valve allows fluid flow through it in only one direction as in Figure below. Hydraulic check valve analogy: (a) Electron current flow permitted. (b) Current flow prohibited. Like check valves, diodes are essentially “pressure-” operated (voltage- operated) devices. The essential difference between forward-bias and reverse-
  77. 77 bias is the polarity of the voltage dropped across the diode. Let's take a closer look at the simple battery-diode-lamp circuit shown earlier, this time investigating voltage drops across the various components in Figure below. Diode circuit voltage measurements: (a) Forward biased. (b) Reverse biased. The voltage dropped across a conducting, forward-biased diode is called the forward voltage. Forward voltage for a diode varies only slightly for changes in forward current and temperature, and is fixed by the chemical composition of the P-N junction. Diode representations: PN-junction model, schematic symbol, physical part. The schematic symbol of the diode is shown in Figure above (b) such that the anode (pointing end) corresponds to the P-type semiconductor at (a). The cathode bar, non-pointing end, at (b) corresponds to the N-type material at (a).
  78. 78 Also note that the cathode stripe on the physical part (c) corresponds to the cathode on the symbol. If a reverse-biasing voltage is applied across the P-N junction, this depletion region expands, further resisting any current through it. (Figure below) → Depletion region expands with reverse bias. Conversely, if a forward-biasing voltage is applied across the P-N junction, the depletion region collapses becoming thinner. The diode becomes less resistive to current through it. In order for a sustained current to go through the diode; though, the depletion region must be fully collapsed by the applied voltage. This takes a certain minimum voltage to accomplish, called the forward voltage as illustrated in Figure below. Increasing forward bias from (a) to (b) decreases depletion region thickness.  Silicon diodes have a forward voltage of approximately 0.7 volts.  Germanium diodes have a forward voltage of approximately 0.3 volts.  The maximum reverse-bias voltage that a diode can withstand without “breaking down” is called the Peak Inverse Voltage, or PIV rating.
  79. 79 Diode curve: showing knee at 0.7 V forward bias for Si, and reverse breakdown. Typically, the PIV rating of a generic “rectifier” diode is at least 50 volts at room temperature. Diodes with PIV ratings in the many thousands of volts are available for modest prices. 2. Thyristors
  80. 80 Common Thyristor Thyristor Circuit Symbol Typical Medium Power Thyristor Construction To turn the thyristor off, the current flowing between anode and cathode must be reduced below a certain critical “holding current” value, (near to zero); alternatively the anode and cathode may be reverse biased. The thyristor is normally made to conduct by applying a gating pulse, while the main anode and cathode terminals are forward biased. When the device is reverse biased, a gating pulse has no effect. The fingure below shows a typical characteristic curve for a thyristor. It can be seen that in the reverse biased region it behaves in a similar way to a diode. All current, apart from a small leakage current is blocked (reverse blocking region) until the reverse breakdown region is reached, at which point the insulation due to the depletion layers at the junctions breaks down.
  81. 81 Typical Thyristor Characteristics To understand the operation of a thyristor, think of it as a two-transistor (pnp and npn) model. If no gate signal is applied, but a voltage is applied (less than forward breakdown voltage) between the top emitter terminal (marked A) and the bottom emitter terminal (marked K) so that A is positive with respect to K, both transistors will be turned off. No current is flowing so the voltage on the gate and cathode will be the same.
  82. 82 The Thyristor “Two Transistor Model” When the gate is made positive with respect to K by the application of a gating pulse, Tr2 will turn on and its collector voltage will fall rapidly. This will cause the pnp transistor Tr1 base emitter junction to become forward biased, turning on Tr1. A large current will now be flowing between A and K. The action described happens very quickly as the switching on of Tr2 by Tr1 is a form of positive feedback with each transistor collector supplying large current changes to the base of the other. As Tr1 collector is connected to Tr2 base, the action of switching on Tr1 connects Tr2 base virtually to the high positive voltage at A. This ensures that Tr2 ( and therefore Tr1) remains in conduction, even when the gating pulse is removed. Because of the thyristor´s ability to switch very large currents at very high (hundreds of volts) voltages, the thyristor is a useful device in power control circuits. It is quite capable of handling AC mains and is used in such circuits as lighting dimmers, motor speed controls etc. They are also widely used as fast acting protection devices in DC power supplies. The switching speed of thyristors is very fast and they are able to switch from fully off to fully on, typically in 1µs. 3. MOSFETS Here are the symbols for FETs and MOSFETs:
  83. 83 Here is an animation showing how to turn on an N-channel MOSFET: → MOSFET turns ON when gate-to- source is more than about 2v (2v to 5v) Here is a comparison between an NPN transistor and N-channel MOSFET: A zener must be added to the gate of a MOSFET if the gate voltage comes from a supply that is above 20v. A normal transistor is a current amplifying device. For a load current of 100mA, the base current for a BC547 will need to be about 1mA. This means it has a current gain of about 100. A MOSFET is a voltage controlled device and the current it will handle depends on its physical size and the way it is constructed. You cannot change this parameter. For a load current up to about 35Amp, the gate current for a IRZ40 will be less than 0.25mA. When the gate voltage is 3v to 4v higher than the source, it turns
  84. 84 on and the resistance between source and drain terminals is about 0.028 ohms. It will handle up to 35 amps. The load determines the current through the MOSFET (not the MOSFET) and if it is less than 35 amps, a IRFZ40 is suitable for the application. Comparison between a PNP transistor and P-channel MOSFET: When the gate voltage is 4v LOWER than rail voltage, the MOSFET turns ON. The 10k resistor on the base of the transistor is needed to prevent the base current exceeding the amount of current needed by the transistor to deliver current to the load. However the 10k resistor on the gate of the MOSFET is not needed. Providing the voltage (up to 18v) on the gate rises and falls quickly, the MOSFET will not get hot. The critical period of time is the 0v to 3v section of the waveform as this is when the MOSFET is turning on.